Semi-supervised Learning by Higher Order Regularization
Xueyuan Zhou, Mikhail Belkin; JMLR W&CP 15:892-900, 2011.
AbstractIn semi-supervised learning, at the limit of infinite unlabeled points while fixing labeled ones, the solutions of several graph Laplacian regularization based algorithms were shown by Nadler et al. (2009) to degenerate to constant functions with ``spikes'' at labeled points in $\R^d$ for $d\ge 2$. These optimization problems all use the graph Laplacian regularizer as a common penalty term. In this paper, we address this problem by using regularization based on an iterated Laplacian, which is equivalent to a higher order Sobolev semi-norm. Alternatively, it can be viewed as a generalization of the thin plate spline to an unknown submanifold in high dimensions. We also discuss relationships between Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces and Green's functions. Experimental results support our analysis by showing consistently improved results using iterated Laplacians.