Çağlar Gülçehre, Yoshua Bengio.
Year: 2016, Volume: 17, Issue: 8, Pages: 1−32
We explored the effect of introducing prior knowledge into the intermediate level of deep supervised neural networks on two tasks. On a task we designed, all black-box state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms which we tested, failed to generalize well. We motivate our work from the hypothesis that, there is a training barrier involved in the nature of such tasks, and that humans learn useful intermediate concepts from other individuals by using a form of supervision or guidance using a curriculum. Our results provide a positive evidence in favor of this hypothesis. In our experiments, we trained a two- tiered MLP architecture on a dataset for which each input image contains three sprites, and the binary target class is $1$ if all of three shapes belong to the same category and otherwise the class is $0$. In terms of generalization, black-box machine learning algorithms could not perform better than chance on this task. Standard deep supervised neural networks also failed to generalize. However, using a particular structure and guiding the learner by providing intermediate targets in the form of intermediate concepts (the presence of each object) allowed us to solve the task efficiently. We obtained much better than chance, but imperfect results by exploring different architectures and optimization variants. This observation might be an indication of optimization difficulty when the neural network trained without hints on this task. We hypothesize that the learning difficulty is due to the composition of two highly non-linear tasks. Our findings are also consistent with the hypotheses on cultural learning inspired by the observations of training of neural networks sometimes getting stuck, even though good solutions exist, both in terms of training and generalization error.